Access Systems: are used for cleaning and maintenance of the facades. Access systems consist of cleaning baskets, mobile ladders and rails that are mounted horizontally on the outside wall. The cleaning baskets can be moved up and down through a crank or electric motor vertically on the conductors so that all areas of the façade can be achieved. The access system includes façade lifts and suspended platforms. In buildings with more than three floors, an electromotive movement of the service lift is required.
Air Gap: The ventilation space is the reverse face of the clothing, perfused with external air space. It occurs in rainscreen facades.
Anchorages: To façade panels (eg from natural stone, fiber-cement or the like) to attach to the structure, the following supporting anchors are used:
- Flat Anchor: for example, consisting of an elongated flat steel, which is spread or wavy end. Its free end is rotated by 90 degrees and wears an anchor pins.
- Angular Anchor: an angled web portion having carrying two separate pairs of anchor thorns.
- Adjustable Anchor: has a separate web portion, which is connected to a height-adjustable to be secured to the outer wall support member.
- Anchor profile web: whose free end is configured as an angled profile web without anchor pins.
- Hanging rail systems: consists of a cast-in channel with a number of uniform holes in the web part. Exceeding for fastening and a plurality of a adjacent plates are bolted to the cast-in channel two cross each pair of plates. The trusses are equipped at their ends to anchor thorns.
- Screw: can be galvanized screws with hexagon head.
For all types of anchoring a consistent corrosion protection must be ensured.
Awning: An awning is a horizontal, external solar shading, which is covered with a textile fabric made of plastic or natural material. Awnings can either be manually operated via a crank or electric motor operated.
Acrylic Glass: (polymethyl methacrylate, PMMA) is a transparent thermoplastic widely used in façade constructions. The material is resistant to bending-resistant glass and is half the weight. However, it does scratch faster and can become brittle due to environmental influences or discolor. The material is also highly flammable and is not permitted in fire-resistant structures.
Aluminium: is used in the building envelope as both pure aluminium and also adding alloys. Depending on the usage for strength, workability, and corrosion behavior, other elements will be added including manganese, magnesium, silicon, and zinc. Aluminium is light weight, around one-third of steel, and has good corrosion resistance and good process ability. Among other applications, aluminium can be used for:
- Plates, sections and tubes for structural components
- Framing Components
- Façade cladding as, cassettes, panels and corrugated or trapezoidal profiles
- Sandwich Panels
- Windows and Doors
- Post and Beam Construction
- Cast Members
Anodize: (Anodic Oxidation) is the anodizing of aluminium and is a artificial enhancement of the oxide layer formed on weathering and before corrosion is designed to protect. It is used in facades, window profiles, door profiles and other components.
Anti-Glare: is needed in rooms where visual acuity and/or visual comfort affected by distur bances, eg at workstations, and thus there is no balanced luminance distribution. There is a difference between anti-glare and sun protection. Regardless of heat radiation glare protection can be arranged on the room side. Typical internal glare protection systems include:
- Film and fabric stores
- Perforated Venetian blins
- Portable glare protection in insulating glass
Beads: are channel-shaped depressions in metal surfaces, which serve to increase the stiffness of individual parts.
Blinds: Blinds are usually for visual and glare protection. Internal blinds prevent small room heating through solar radiation.
Bronze (Architectural Bronze): is an alloy of copper, zinc, manganese and lead or iron. (CuZn40Mn2Fe1 – Material No. CW723R). Architectural Bronze is manufactured in sheets and profiles. It is suitable for cold forming and can be very soft and hard to solder. It cannot be welded. The material is easily glued to other materials such as wood, glass, cement. The surface of the metal cladding can be polished, brushed, or bead blasted. Light to dark brown tones can be produced through chemical treatment.
Cleaning Systems: are used for maintenance and cleaning of facades. They serve the availability of all necessary facades of a building. Depending on the size of the building, economy, cleaning intervals desired, and design and safety systems should be included early in the planning process. The systems listed below are intended to provide only a rough guide:
- Cleaning baskets on boom cranes
- Suspended platforms with rope threads
- Lifting cranes
- Horizontally movable vertical ladder structure with platforms
- Sliding bridges for glass roofs
Coefficient of Expansion: The coefficient of expansion is defined by this formula and describes how all materials expand with changes in temperature. The expansion coefficient describes this specific material property, i.e if it is a material property, and describes the ratio of the change in length of a particular material in response to a temperature change.
Corridor Façade: The corridor façade is a double façade in the façade cavity. It is segmented horizontally and the ventilation takes place each storey of the façade gap. The façade cavity is accessible in the rule. An undesirable mixing of incoming and outgoing air is avoided by staggered intake and exhaust vents. Due to the separation of the façade floor by floor space is made for fire safety advantages.
Corten Steel: is a weatherproof, weldable fine grain structural steel in principle for use in the façade. It is weather resistance and is produced by forming a covering layer that is continuously evolving. The durability of Corten steel depends on the local climate, the alignment of the components to the weather side and on the air pollution. A surface protective coating is recommended, as in certain chemical levels there is a risk of permanent moisture.
Curtain Wall: Curtain wall facades and curtain walls are mounted independently of the support structure from the ceiling of a building. The cross-storey building envelope depends on requirements usually made of steel or aluminium profiles, which are filled in with glass or functional elements. Curtain walls can be constructed as a post and beam facades or as an element façade.
Coatings: are as varied and diverse as the materials of the façade construction itself, on which they are used. They all share their material protective effect. The thickness of a coating is usually between 0.5 microns and 60.0 microns. The following material examples show only a sample of the industrial and technical possibilities of the coatings:
- Wood: middle class glaze and opaque paint. Functions include color and color retention, UV Protection, Chemical wood protection and moisture protection.
- Glass: hard and soft coating, anti-reflective coating and enamel coating.
- Metal: anodizing, patina, powder coating and liquid paint coating
- Mineral surfaces such as plaster, concrete, limestone, natural and artificial stone.
Copper: The building material of copper is used in facades and is made of 100% from Cu-DHP. Copper bands with respect to their surface and color can be treated in different ways. This takes the natural corrosion process of copper in the atmosphere:
- Copper strips pre-oxidized makes a brownish color
- Pre-patinated copper strips makes for a typical green patina
- Tinned copper strips are matt gray.
Copper can be welded, soldered, rounded, folded and is mechanically very easy to process. Due to its resistance Copper is also an extremely durable façade material.
Corrosion: is the reaction of a metallic material with its environment, which causes a measurable change in the material and can lead to impairment of the function of a metal component or system. The mere occurrence of corrosion must still be no corrosion of the underlying material. When dissimilar metals contact each other, this is possible when appropriate moisture corrosion of the less noble metal leads. This is called galvanic corrosion.
Daylight: Light is the visible part of the radiant energy emanating from the sun. It lies in the wavelength range 380-780 nm. To use daylight as a free source of energy optimal light control systems.
Double Façade: Double skin facades consist of an insulating glass façade and a second glazing plane depending on the concept behind or in front of the primary façade that it is placed. The concept of the double skin façade system is that compared with a conventional single-layer glass façade, it offers an effective sound insulation, reduced transmission heat loss in the winter, and sun and glare protection. It also allows for ventilation in tall buildings.
Edge Processing: The edges of a material can be processed, or must be matched to the selected building materials. In these examples, glass edge treatments are possible:
- Cut, sharp edges
- Custom-ground/ Calibrated
- Ground / Fine Calibrated
Miter edges are at least roughly ground and always with chamfer. The edges of toughened safety glass must be processed before the bias voltage. Manufacturing tolerances should be respected.
ETFE: is a plastic used in architecture mainly in the form of films. These membrane structures are used as roofing of swimming pools or greenhouses, as well as the facades of stadiums and other buildings. The advantages of plastics are its lightness, high resistance (eg against aggressive chemicals) and light transmission. The degree of transparency can change with the produced films by dyeing, printing or coating. The films are used as a single layer or as pneumatic structures (air cushion), in which the static air stabilizes multiple film layers and provides a relatively good thermal insulation. This will widely depend on the number of air chambers and the technical quality of the films.
Element Façade: consists of prefabricated modular elements. It is brought into its individual elements on the construction site, where the body shell with adjustable anchors is attached. In general, the elements are from the floor to the ceiling and have a wide axis. Complex façade constructions can be assembled and glazed under controlled conditions in the workshop. In addition, various expansion elements can include sun and glare protection, or façade lighting.
Enamelling: The two basics are glass and metal enamel. In the method of the glass-enamel, a ceramic layer is applied to the surface of the glass prior to the manufacturing process. The glass melts to form a new surface in biasing to the glass. Subsequently, the resulting toughened safety glass cannot be processed (eg, drill or cut). The lenses can be made in all RAL colors and special colors. The metal enamelling includes the hot dip galvanizing of the most proven surface coatings. The glassy surface consists of silicon oxide, and other elements that are applied by dipping, powdering, or spraying, and then baked. Enamelled surfaces are resistant to alkalis, acids, and are electrically insulating.
Façade: is the “face” of a building. As a face, it is considered beautiful or sympathetic, and the façade of a building will attract or repel people to it. In addition to the protective-enveloping, structural and energetic parameters are taken into account in the façade design. It is the task of the architect to design the façade so that it is appealing to the viewer. The goal is to bring the viewer to become interested in the interior of the building. Often, massive wall structures, such as brick masonry, are referred to as a façade or masonry façade. However, in accordance with the construction standards, these are exterior walls and not facades.
Fc Value: describes the reduction factor of a sun protection device. The reduction factor is a number between zero and one, and is also a function of the glass used. The lower the value means the greater the reduction of the solar radiation through the sunscreen.
Façade Pattern: Sample facades are not only made to verify design in the last step, but also offer constructive minimum requirements for the façade to test. All essential elements and connections should be shown in detail on the façade pattern. Those craftsmen and exporting companies that build and test the model should be involved in the construction of the later façade as well. New, innovative façade constructions can be tested according to the requirements for air permeability, water permeability, sound transmission and fire resistance in appropriate test facilities prior to their incorporation.
Hot Dip Galvanizing: is a kind of metallic coating of steel parts, where the front corrosion is intended to protect. The process is by immersing steel parts into a molten zinc bath of about 450 Celsius. The layers are 50 to 150 microns thick. Hot dip galvanizing is a very economical solution for long-term protection against corrosion.
Joint: Joints are meant to record temperature-induced length changes in materials. Joints are also meant to ensure the sufficient number of joints and their correct execution on façade constructions. All components should have the necessary ability to expand or contract in order to prevent cracks and bulges. Water penetration joints with sealing gaskets or sealants help seal the joints.
Joint Permeability Coefficient: The joint permeability coefficient describes the air tightness of window joints. It is meant to reduce the ventilation heat losses with closed windows, doors and ventilation openings in the Energy Saving Ordinance.
Joint Tape: Joint sealing strip is a sealant of flexible polyurethane foam in the precompressed joint. The dimensions of the joint sealing strip depends on the joint width and depth.
Laminated Veneer Lumber: Laminated veneer lumber (FSH) is produced by paralleling and gluing peeled veneers. The surface may be smooth, rough sawn or brushed. As a façade material only the plywood FSH-Q should be used. These are recommended for outdoor use by manufacturers.
Lightsabers: are a sort of light control to optimize the daylight. A lightsaber or Lightshelf consists of highly reflective materials and are horizontally or diagonally within the facade. It is located mostly in the area of the window. A Lightshelf is usually on the outside mounted below the lateral skylight in 90- or 60- degree angles on the façade, so that the light from the zenith can be reflected on the ceiling of the interior. Lightsabers dominate the façade character of its strong horizontal layout. Their application is suitable especially for double facades.
Light Transmittance: The light transmittance of tL indicates what proportion of visible radiation passes vertically through the glass. Under visible radiation in this case can be understood to 780 nm, based on the brightness sensitivity of the human eye wavelength of 380 nm. In simple terms, this means that the higher the tL-value is, the more light enters from the outside and it is not reduced by glass thickness, glass reflection or glass coatings. The light transmittance of a heat-insulating glass, for example, is 76%.
Light Steering Systems: have the task of the use of daylight to optimize and improve the illumination of the room in great room depths.
Membrane Façade: Modern diaphragm walls are thin-skinned, load-bearing, prestressed structures. The mechanically or pneumatically preloaded materials can remove loads from wind pressure and wind suction in primary structures. Textile membrane of thermoplastic fibers and natural fibers such as linen, cotton, silk or hemp fabrics are usually used. A two-applied coating protects against UV rays, weather conditions and microorganisms. The waterproof coatings improve fire properties. In addition to textile membranes are plastic films, particularly ETFE films, a fluoropolymer material, used as a pneumatically prestressed membrane structures. ETFE films are used as transparent multilayer infill in façade constructions.
Metal Cladding: The essential metals that are found in metal cladding include copper, lead, tin, steel (iron), zinc and aluminium. Most of the metals listed, however, occur in alloys as a phenomenon, the material properties are improved compared to the pure metals. Other alloys used in metal cladding include architectural bronze or stainless steel. When planning metal cladding, particularly in the surface treatment, corrosion protection and temperature-induced changes in length are observed.
Opaque: Opaque means as opposed to transparent or translucent, “opaque and not transparent”. Opaque materials include materials (excluding perforated sheets and fabric), wood and some types of natural stone.
Plastics: Synthetic plastics such as thermoplastics and thermosets found in the form of composite bridges, sealing films, sealing gaskets, sealing tapes, elastic sealants and insulation materials used in numerous facades. As cladding, the following are translucent to transparent and can be used in the for mof sheets, corrugated and multiwall sheets:
- Acrylic, polmethyl methacrylate (PMMA)
- Polycarbonate (PC)
- Polyvinyl chloride (PVC)
- Polyethylne Terephthalate (PET-A_)
Additional surface treatments such as printing or coating are also available.
Proportion of Window Area: of a façade describes the percentage of transparent facades of the total façade area. The energy-saving window area fraction contains both the glass and the window frame.
Polycarbonate (PC): is an engineering plastic (thermoplastic). It is very impact resistant and cold-resistant. Its amorphous structure gives it a high transparency. Polycarbonate has a relatively high heat resistance and takes only very low water. It is therefore very suitable for outdoor applications in the form of transparent, flat sheets, multiwall and corrugated sheets.
Primary Façade: In a double façade which is a heat insulating façade (usually the inboard façade), it can also be called a primary façade. It is the original, first façade to façade of a second (double skin) that was added to the concept of double facades. In the primary exhaust façade, it lies it outside and the inside is complemented by a single glazed bowl.
Reflection: Reflection is the wavelength dependent on discarding of radiation on a surface. The reflection from smooth and polished surfaces follows the mirror laws.
Restraint Anchor: Restraint anchor of cladding panels direct the wind loads on longitudinal forces directly on the base material or in a sub-structure. They are made of stainless steel.
Sandwich Panel: It is necessary to distinguish between sandwich panels (the large surface area, representing such areas as halls) and the complete functional outer shell and those that are integrated within other façade elements and infill only parts. Sandwich elements are industrially prefabricated façade elements and are mainly used in commercial buildings and single-wall construction. They consist of cover sheets of different materials (generally metal) and a core of foam (usually polyurethane foam or polystyrene) or a mineral insulating material. The core can produce a composite action with the skins. The sandwich panels can be planned, prepared, edged, or rounded. Depending on the use, size, and material, the thicknesses of the inner shell will be around 0.5 to 0.65 mm, the outer shell from 0.55 to 0.75 mm. The cover sheets are profiled according to application and material, trapezoidal or smooth. Through various edge profiles, the individual elements must be airtight connected. The surfaces are against corrosion protection and are offered subject to manufacturers in different RAL colors and surface finishes. Sandwich elements are often referred to as a composite element, insulation panels, insulating panels or metal panels.
Sliding Shutters: operated manually or motorized, are used as external sun, glare and/or visual barriers. The guided in rails, sliding frame elements can be executed with sheets, plates, strips, bars, or tissues, depending on the design and function of desire in different materials. The appearance of a façade is dominated by flexible sliding shutters.
Sound Absorption Coefficient: The impact of the sound, characterized by a sound power W1, on a wall surface in a room in which a sound source is located. The absorption process is the sound absorption coefficient and deals with sound reflection and sound transmission. It describes the values between 0 (complete reflection) and 1 (complete absorption) can accept. In room acoustics, all sound energy shares are considered to be “absorbed”, and are not reflected. So it does not matter which way the sound is. Even an open window through which the entire incident sound energy simply passes, a sound absorption coefficient of 1.0 is assigned.
Steel: White cast iron is made with the addition of alloying elements and/or scrap steel. As a façade material, it is hot and cold rolled profiles, strips in thin sheets, and extrusions. The following are possible depending on the type of load different corrosion protection systems of different classes:
- Hot dip galvanizing
- Aluminum, zinc alloy, zinc-aluminum alloy
In addition, the surface of the steel can be protected with a plastic coating (whether it be liquid or film coating).
Substructure: Subsructures are usually in double façade constructions used (eg rainscreen facades) to dead loads and wind loads to be transferred into the ground. You should be able to compensate for tolerances in all directions under construction. Substructures are mostly in aluminum, steel, stainless steel or wood executed. In areas where it is exposed to the substructure weather, you should pay particular attention to their corrosion resistance. Thermal bridges are so far a structure it is possible to avoid.
Second-Skin Façade: The double-skin façade, also called mutli-storey façade, is a form of double façade. It can be used with or without window ventilation. Both versions use the low transmission of heat loss and solar gain in winter and the good protection against high ambient noise levels. The advantage of the primary façade with window ventilation is the possible use of natural ventilation concepts with simultaneous sound insulation. The year-round use of mechanical ventilation is not necessary. If the façade cavity is not segmented, the façade cavity may create noise and odor transfers between adjacent rooms and floors.
Shutters: Shutters are used as protection against intruders and also requires sound, sun, glare and privacy. The main functions of shutters are for safety properties. In view of the significantly improved thermal insulation, glazing the shutter has lost as a temporary heat protection at night. The entry of diffuse daylight is almost impossible in most shutters. In its function as a visual and glare protection, there is also an impact of the low incidence of daylight at the expense of operating costs through increased energy demand. However, there are now also products that can offer good daylight.
Solar Radiation: The solar radiation that passes through a glass pane consists of three wavelength ranges:
- Ultra-violet radiation (315-380 nm)
- Visible radiation (380-780 nm)
- IR radiation (780-2500 nm)
The UV range below 315 nanometers and the infrared region above 2500 nanometers are completely absorbed by a glass sheet.
Stainless Steel: contains at least 11.8% chromium and nickel or molybdenum, depending on the use. Stainless steel has a weight of 7.9 g/cm3. It can be used outdoors without further coatings, unless there are special corrosion loads that occur. The fire resistance of stainless steel is higher than normal steels.
It can be used in the following way in facades:
- Façade cladding (corrugated, trapezoidal and cassette profiles)
- Sandwich panels
By immersion in chromic-sulfuric acid solution, it can produce colored surfaces, stainless steel surfaces, and also honed, sandblasted glass, etched or enameled.
Sunscreen: Sun protection reduces the penetration through the façade openings into the interior solar radiation. A comfortable climate should be ensured with a good sunscreen over all seasons. In air-conditioned buildings of the cooling energy consumption and operating costs can be reduced. In single-facades of sunscreen, outside and inside elements in the insulating glass are arranged. The best reduction factor (Fc) of the energy input is with external shading systems. They are rigid, portable, and temporary elements obtained with electromotive centrally controlled (light and wind sensor) systems. However, these extreme weather and dirt conditions are exposed. In double facades of sunscreen, most sense is used in the protected façade cavity. A further variant of sun protection filters sunglass lenses with a low G-Value.
Translucent: means as opposed to transparent, “translucent”. Translucent materials include cast glass (with structures), etched or sandblasted float glass, glasses with refractive films, colored or profiled plastics (etc onyx, marble) or thin natural stone. Translucent light effects with tissues or perforated plates in metals (aluminum, stainless steel, copper) effectively are achieved. Translucent concrete is also offered.
Transparent: If a material is transparent, it means as opposed to translucent, “transparent”. Transparent materials include float glass, white glass (without surface treatments0< acrylic, polycarbonate or PVC sheets.
Transmission: Light transmission is the passage of radiation through a medium (eg, glass) without changing the wavelengths. In addition to the transmission portion when struck by solar radiation on, for example a glass pane, there is also the proportions that are reflected and absorbed. The transmission properties of glass are the light transmittance described.
Triple Glazing: consists of three sheets of float glass and two disc spaces that can be filled in order to improve the U-value with inert gas (usually Argon or Xenon). You can reach this with low-e coatings a U vale of 0.8 – 0.5 W/m-squared K. The disadvantage is the high weight of the discs and a lower light transmittance.
Venetian Blind: External blinds are sun protection measures that are pulled up (or gathered) and can be pushed. This flexibility is the biggest advantage over a rigid sun protection because in overcast the review and the light will not be affected. The items should be independently controlled by the user through wind sensor. Venetian blinds consists of:
- Leathers (beaded, aluminium)
- Guide elements (rails, rope
- Drive elements (for electric
Flexible rotating slats allow in addition to its protective effect, targeted optical control to diffuse light into the building to maximize the daylight.
Wind Seal: A wind seal protects against the ingress of cold and outside air to flow-open heat insulation materials. The gasket should be diffusible and with moisture that has penetrated into the interior of the building envelope that can be diffused out of the component.
Zinc: For façade cladding in zinc alloy, only the titanium Zinc is used. The first mill finished, the silver surface is covered by the natural weathering process with a matte, gray-blue patina. The process of a homogeneous patina formation may take several years to form. An artificial pre-weathering of the surface may help the period be shortened or bypassed. The material titanium zinc has a low thermal expansion, and with the low corrosion rates it can be very well made. It is a façade material in strips, boards, panels, cassettes or corrugated or zigzag profiles. Titanium Zinc is one of the building material class A. Zinc is also used as surface corrosion protection for other materials such as steel.